The Society of Jesus or the Jesuits, as they were known, were by far the most important order that appeared in this early phase of the Catholic Reformation. Its founder Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) had a profound influence on Catholic spirituality in early modern times, notably through the widespread dissemination of his classical devotional work TheSpiritual Exercises. He originally wrote the work as a diary of his own quest for spiritual perfection, but he adapted it for the use of his disciples. It was based on a mental prayer technique called “meditation” by Loyola. The Jesuits, who were practicing the exercises for the first time, had to keep before their eyes some predefined images of The life of Christ. Through these meditations over the course of thirty days, the Jesuits acquired the mental tools they needed to avoid sin. Although originally intended for Loyola`s disciples, spiritual exercises eventually became a form of retreat practiced by many members of the Catholic faithful in early modern times. The practitioners of these devotions therefore held very different ideas from the Protestants, which greatly emphasized the wickedness and impotence of humanity outside of God`s help. On the other hand, these devoted Catholics believed that sin could be overcome by a combination of human effort and God`s grace.
Back to Trent. After the death of Paul III, his successor Julius iii.dem yielded to the emperor`s pressure and retransmitted the Council to Trent on November 14, 1550. The only Lechat was Cardinal Marcello Crescenzio, associated with Bishop Sebastiano Pighino and Bishop Luigi Lippomano as co-chairs. The Council was opened in time on May 1, 1551, but did not begin its work until the end of the summer; However, as a result of the work done in Bologna, it already succeeded on 11 October 1551 (session 13) to end with the important decree on the Eucharist which defined the actual presence of Christ (vere, true and substantialiter) as opposed to the teaching of U. zwingli and the teaching of transubstantiation as opposed to Von Luther. These definitions turned to eight chapters of teaching and eleven canons. On November 25, 1551 (Session 14) followed the definition of the doctrine of penance and extreme unction. [see Salber, i (theology of).] In the cause of the sacrament of penance, the Council has distinguished three elements: repentance, confession (at least of capital sins) and reparation; priestly absolution has been defined as a legal act.
On the question of extreme incomprehy, it was mainly a question of the sacramental nature of this action, which Luther had challenged. The reform decrees of both sessions concerned the rights and duties of bishops to their clergy and governed the procedure before the ecclesiastical courts.