From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the end of the Un Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding and universal agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2oC above the lower temperature levels set before the start of the industrial revolution. INDE has addressed the challenges of eradicating poverty while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. About 24% of the world`s population without access to electricity (304 million) lived in India. Nevertheless, the country planned to “reduce the intensity of its GDP emissions by 33-35% by 2030” from 2005 levels. The country has also attempted to buy about 40% of its electricity from renewable energy sources, not fossil fuels by 2030. INDC found that implementation plans would not be affordable from national resources: it estimated that it would take at least $2.5 trillion to implement climate change measures by 2030. India would achieve this through the transfer of technology (transfer of capacity and equipment from the most developed countries to less developed countries [LDCs]) and international funding, including support from the Green Climate Fund (an end-to-end investment support program in low-emission technologies and the development of populations vulnerable to the effects of climate change). In the run-up to the Paris meeting, the United Nations has instructed countries to present plans detailing how they intend to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These plans have been technically referred to as planned national contributions (INDC).
As of December 10, 2015, 185 countries had introduced measures to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 or 2030. In 2014, the United States announced its intention to reduce its emissions by 26-28% from 2005 levels by 2025. To achieve this goal, the country`s Clean Power Plan should set limits for existing and projected emissions from power plants. China, the country that emits the most greenhouse gases as a whole, has set a goal of reaching its carbon dioxide emissions “around 2030 and making the best efforts to reach an early peak.” The Chinese authorities have also sought to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% compared to 2005. Paris Agreement, in the middle of the Paris Agreement on climate change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international treaty named after the city of Paris, France, which adopted it in December 2015, which aimed to reduce emissions of gases contributing to global warming. The Paris agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, a previous international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It came into force on 4 November 2016 and was signed by 194 countries and ratified by 188 in November 2020.